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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 83

Prognostic factors in traumatic brain injuries in emergency department


1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences; Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Quran and Hadith Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amir Bahador Boroumand
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrms.jrms_290_22

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Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults. The Extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOSE) has been introduced to assess the global outcome after brain injuries. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors associated with GOSE. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted on 144 patients with TBI admitted at trauma emergency centers. The patients' information, including demographic characteristics, duration of hospital stay, mechanical ventilation and on-admission laboratory measurements, and on-admission vital signs, were evaluated. The patients' TBI-related symptoms and brain computed tomography (CT) scan findings were recorded. Results: GOSE assessments showed an increasing trend by the comparison of on-discharge (7.47 ± 1.30), within a month (7.51 ± 1.30) and within 3 months (7.58 ± 1.21) evaluations (P < 0.001). On-discharge GOSE was positively correlated with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)(r = 0.729, P < 0.001), motor GCS (r = 0.812, P < 0.001), Hb (r = 0.165, P = 0.048), and pH (r = 0.165, P = 0.048) and inversely with age (r = −0.261, P = 0.002), hospitalization period (r = −0.678, P < 0.001), pulse rate (r = −0.256, P = 0.002), white blood cell (WBC) (r = −0.222, P = 0.008), and triglyceride (r = −0.218, P = 0.009). In multiple linear regression analysis, the associations were significant only for GCS (B = 0.102, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0–0.202; P = 0.05), hospitalization stay duration (B = −0.004, 95% CI: −0.005–−0.003, P = 0.001), and WBC (B = 0.00001, 95% CI: 0.00000014–0.000025; P = 0.024). Among imaging signs and trauma-related symptoms in univariate analysis, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), interventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (P = 0.006), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (P = 0.06; marginally at P < 0.1), subdural hemorrhage (SDH) (P = 0.032), and epidural hemorrhage (EDH) (P = 0.037) was significantly associated with GOSE at discharge in multivariable analysis. Conclusion: According to the current study findings, GCS, hospitalization stay duration, WBC and among imaging signs and trauma-related symptoms ICH, IVH, SAH, SDH, and EDH are independent significant predictors of GOSE at discharge in TBI patients.


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