Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 219
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
Previous article Browse articles Next article 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
J Res Med Sci 2022,  27:44

T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria for monitoring cardiac siderosis in patients with beta-thalassemia major


Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission09-Aug-2021
Date of Decision25-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance29-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Moien Hendimarjan
Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrms.jrms_705_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Despite the availability of iron chelators, toxicity due to increased iron load is the leading cause of death in thalassemia major patients, especially in Iran. This study was performed to determine the association between cardiovascular magnetic resonance using T2-weighted sequences (CMR T2*) and diagnostic value of echocardiographic arterial elasticity in major beta-thalassemia patients without cardiac symptoms in Isfahan, Iran, in 2019 and 2021. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the association between CMR T2*, advanced echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria, and serum ferritin in 67 patients with major beta-thalassemia patients without cardiac symptoms at Chamran Cardiovascular, Medical, and Research Center in Isfahan, Iran, in 2019–2021. Data analysis was performed among the 67 patients using SPSS, version 24.0 (Statistical Procedures for Social Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Spearman's rank test was used to assess the correlation between T2*CMR, echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria, and ferritin. All parameters are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The results were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Results: There was a positive correlation between CMR T2* and arterial elastance index (P = 0.035, r = 0.258), according to the Spearman test. In addition, CMR T2* was not correlated with the serum ferritin (P = 0.158, r = 0.201). Conclusion: Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that the arterial elastance index from echocardiography and the CMR T2* may be indicators of myocardial iron overload in patients with major beta-thalassemia patients without cardiac symptoms.

Keywords: Arterial elasticity, echocardiography, ferritin, major thalassemia, T2*CMR


How to cite this article:
Zavar R, Hendimarjan M, Behjati M, Yazdani D. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria for monitoring cardiac siderosis in patients with beta-thalassemia major. J Res Med Sci 2022;27:44

How to cite this URL:
Zavar R, Hendimarjan M, Behjati M, Yazdani D. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria for monitoring cardiac siderosis in patients with beta-thalassemia major. J Res Med Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 10];27:44. Available from: https://www.jmsjournal.net/text.asp?2022/27/1/44/349441




  Introduction Top


Beta-thalassemia is the most common genetic hemoglobinopathy disorder worldwide, especially in Iran. For patients with beta-thalassemia major, heart failure due to iron-overload cardiomyopathy is the leading reason of mortality.[1],[2] In developed countries, about 70% of thalassemia deaths are due to iron overload in the heart. This is despite the fact that many of these patients die before the age of 35 due to treatments based on iron chelators.[3] This disease has a high prevalence in our country, so that the incidence of beta-thalassemia gene in the south and southeast of Iran has been reported 8%–10%.[4] The use of blood transfusions as a hypertransfusion regimen allowed patients with thalassemia major to grow and develop relatively normally. However, frequent blood transfusions increase the amount of iron in the body and thus iron deposition in vital organs such as liver, heart, and endocrine glands causes many problems for patients. It should be noted that the body's iron is not excreted by the liver and kidneys, so it is necessary to use drugs that help to excrete iron by chelating.[5],[6] The use of iron chelators and their dosage requires an accurate assessment of the body's iron stores, and for this purpose, various methods are used, including measuring serum ferritin level or assessing liver iron levels using liver biopsy. This recent method, in addition to being an invasive method, does not provide an accurate assessment of the amount of iron in the heart.[7],[8] For this reason, noninvasive methods are used to measure the level of iron in the heart and liver. One of these methods is T2*CMR, which has been performed in Iran recently. T2*CMR is performed using paramagnetic properties and evaluation of parameters including T2 relaxation enhancement induced by high-molecular-weight iron complexes such as ferritin and hemosiderin, which accumulate in siderotic tissues, allowing rapid measurement of cardiac hepatic iron load, and ultimately helps to diagnose tissue hemosiderin and myocardial hemosiderosis before clinical manifestations.[9],[10] In patients with a reduced ventricular function, a T2* value <20 ms is correlated with iron overload. Furthermore, patients with T2* values <10 ms are at higher risk for heart failure in the upcoming year. These findings have been confirmed in observational, prospective, and randomized controlled studies of iron chelation in thalassemia patients.[11],[12],[13] Tissue echocardiography is another noninvasive method also used to evaluate the effects of iron deposition on the heart and to evaluate the results of treatment with chelators.[14] One of the parameters that can be calculated indirectly from echocardiography is the degree of arterial stiffness or flexibility of the arteries. This method of assessing the amount of iron in the heart tissue is cheaper and more accessible than T2*CMR.[15] There are a few studies in the existing literature on the relationship between T2*CMR and advanced echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria. If such relationship is found, it may be used as a prognostic tool for myocardial iron overload. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between myocardial T2* and echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria in patients with thalassemia major.


  Materials and Methods Top


This cross-sectional study was performed among 67 patients with major thalassemia at Chamran Cardiovascular, Medical, and Research Center in Isfahan, Iran, in 2019 and 2021 with history of at least 15-year transfusion. Inclusion criteria of patients in this study are that they first received a pack cell a week ago and also performed T2*CMR in the past year, aged ≥10 years with myocardial T2* >6 msonds without clinical symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (orthopnea, exercise intolerance, and arrhythmias). The majority of the patients were receiving chelation therapy with subcutaneous desferrioxamine (20–30 mg/kg/d 3 days/week). Duration between doing CMR and echocardiography was maximum 90 days. The exclusion criteria were comprised of valvular heart disease, pulmonary artery hypertension, systemic hypertension, structural heart disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, thyroid and parathyroid disorders, congenital heart diseases, and contraindication for CMR. The association between T2*CMR and echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria was assessed in the study population. The data collection and analysis associated with this study were approved by Isfahan Medical University Ethics Committee (IR.MUI.MED.REC.1398.164), and written consent was obtained from all participants.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for all patients at Al Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, with a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Achieva 1.5T A-series, Siemens Medical Systems).[16] Scan duration was 14–21 min. For the measurement of myocardial T2*, we used the Royal Brompton protocol which is based on a single short-axis mid-ventricular slice halfway between the base and the apex of the left ventricle was attained by means of a single breath-hold electrocardiography-gated multi-echo method and it was acquired at 8 separate echo times (TE 3–22·6 ms). The repetition time between RF pulses was between 125 and 223 ms, depending on the echo time used.[17]

Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography was performed using the Philips Epiq 7C with a S5-1 (2.5MHz) probe via transthoracic approach. We used standard parasternal short-axis view just below the tips of mitral valve leaflets for measurements of LV systolic and end-diastolic dimensions.[18] Echocardiographic signal was recorded simultaneously on videotape and then analyzed off-line by two independent and experienced investigators blinded to the condition of the trial subjects.

Arterial elastance index will be calculated through the following formula. Elastic properties of aorta are useful not only in representing basic mechanical behavior of the arterial system but also in predicting outcome.

Arterial elastance index = SBP × 0.9/LVSV

In this formula, SBP stands for systolic blood pressure determined with a cuff sphygmomanometer of the left brachial artery under standardized conditions.[19] LVSV stands for left ventricular stroke volume (ml) and will be calculated through the following formula.



In this formula, LVOT diameter stands for left ventricular outflow tract diameter (mm) and is measured in the parasternal long-axis view in systole. The LVOT velocity time integral provides information regarding blood velocity across the time period of systole and is in the units of cm. Typical values are close to 2 cm.[20]

For each measurement, three consecutive cardiac cycles were analyzed and an average was obtained. These parameters provide information about the structure of the aorta. Disruption of these parameters means a structural change in the arterial wall.

Data analysis was performed among the 67 patients using SPSS, version 24.0 (Statistical Procedures for Social Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA). All parameters are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Spearman's rank test was used to assess the correlation between T2*CMR, echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria, and ferritin. Ferritin was measured using the enzyme-linked immunoassay device (Anthos 2020 model, Austria). Furthermore, to fit the proper line of variable, we used the Loess method. The results were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05.


  Results Top


From September 2019 to June 2020, 67 patients (34 females and 33 males) were included in this study. The mean age was 27.93 ± 8.53, with a range of 13–61 years. The mean value of Hb and serum ferritin was 9.80 ± 1.12 (g/dL) and 1772.28 ± 1801 (ng/ml), respectively. The demographic data, biochemistry, and hematologic profile of patients are summarized in [Table 1]. The mean relaxation time of heart was 25.45 ± 11.28 msonds (msec). In the present study, the relaxation time of cardiac MRI was respectively >20 msec in 42 (71.2%) patients, 25 patients (37.3%) had myocardial iron overload. T2*CMR ranges are summarized in [Table 2].
Table 1: Demographic data, biochemistry, and hematologic profile

Click here to view
Table 2: Geometric mean baseline myocardial T2*±standard deviation, ms

Click here to view


As depicted in [Figure 1] and [Figure 2], in the present study, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin, Hb, and the reported iron level in T2*CMR (P = 0.158, r = 0.201, and P = 0.739, r = 0.042), respectively. Furthermore, from the data in [Figure 3], it is apparent that there was a positive correlation between T2*CMR and arterial elastance index (P = 0.035, r = 0.258), according to the Spearman test.
Figure 1: Correlation between serum ferritin level and T2*CMR (P = 0.158, r = 0.201). T2*CMR = T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Click here to view
Figure 2: Correlation between hemoglobin level and T2*CMR (P = 0.739, r = 0.042). T2*CMR = T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Click here to view
>Figure 3: Correlation between T2*CMR and arterial elastance index (P = 0.035, r = 0.258), according to the Loess method to fit the proper line of variable. T2*CMR = T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between T2*CMR and echocardiographic arterial elasticity criteria in patients with major thalassemia. We found that T2*CMR was not correlated with the serum ferritin and Hb. In addition, the most striking result to emerge from the data is that T2*CMR was correlated with arterial elastance index from echocardiography. The main limitations of the current study were disappointment to conduct echocardiography for all the patients owing to imprecise measurement of the arterial elastance index, and two patients were not able to measure the arterial elastance index due to poor echo windows; in addition, echocardiograms were not performed at the time of the CMR studies, but this passed time enough to statistically not affect the results of the measurements.

Numerous studies have described that cardiac hemosiderosis takes place in 70%–100% of thalassemia major cases.[2],[3] Our results showed that 71.2% of all patients had cardiac iron overload which is in agreement with similar studies, such as the study by Azarkeivan et al.[17]

In the current study, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and the reported iron level in heart MRI T2*. Although, like the current study, T2*CMR has not been associated with ferritin level in several occasions. On the other hand, some authors have characterized a negative correlation between ferritin and T2* values.[21],[22],[23] However, there is no denying that an increase in serum ferritin of patients with thalassemia major with a T2*CMR <20 ms can be considered as a predictor of increased tissue iron overload.

Furthermore, another important aspect of our study was a positive correlation between T2*CMR and arterial elastance index from echocardiography (P = 0.035, r = 0.258). Similar to our finding, many studies have suggested changes in vascular endothelial function and arterial elastance in patients with beta-thalassemia detects early myocardial dysfunction related to myocardial iron overload.[2],[24],[25] On the other hand, one of the causes of arterial stiffness in these patients is iron overload. The existence of a relationship between T2*CMR and arterial elastance in this study in line with other studies confirms this issue. Vogel et al. showed that the incidence of wall motion abnormalities was significantly higher (P < 0.04) in patients with myocardial iron overload.[26] In accordance with our study aims, Aypar et al. also found the efficacy of correlation between T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance and tissue Doppler imaging parameter in predicting myocardial iron load in patients with beta-thalassemia major.[27]

According to the findings of the current study, in a retrospective analysis of 319 patients with beta-thalassemia major, Alpendurada et al. reported that when myocardial T2* was <20 ms, there was a significant decline in echocardiogram factors related to elastance, such as RV function with worsening cardiac iron loading.[28]

Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that although ferritin may be still a useful parameter for assessment of iron loading of the heart, could not accurately predict cardiac iron overload, as measured by T2*CMR in major beta-thalassemia patients without cardiac symptoms. The results will illustrate the diagnostic value of T2*CMR in the diagnosis of cardiac iron overload in thalassemia patients.

It can also be concluded from the results of the present study that arterial elastance index from echocardiography and the T2*CMR by affirming each other for positive correlation may be the most valuable indicator of myocardial iron overload in patients with major thalassemia. Further studies with larger sample sizes and more power are required to attain more definite results.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Hamid M, Zargan Nezhad E, Keikhaei B, Galehdari H, Saberi A, Sedaghat A, et al. Two novel and five rare mutations in the non coding regions of the β-globin gene in the Iranian population. Hemoglobin 2020;44:225-30.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Stanca I, Rus M, Albu A, Fica S. Predictive factors of heart failure in patients with beta-thalassemia major. Technium Soc Sci J 2020;8:670.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Jobanputra M, Paramore C, Laird SG, McGahan M, Telfer P. Co-morbidities and mortality associated with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemia in patients in England: A 10-year retrospective cohort analysis. Br J Haematol 2020;191:897-905.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Pouranfard J, Vafaei F, Afrouz S, Rezaeian M. Thalassemia gene mutations in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province. Iranian Journal of Blood and Cancer 2020;12:18-23.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Raghuwanshi B, Kumari S, Sahoo DP. Clinical and metabolic complications in patients with thalassemia undergoing transfusion therapy. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:973-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
  [Full text]  
6.
Dorgaleleh S, Barahouie A, Naghipoor K, Dastaviz F, Ghodsalavi Z, Oladnabi M. Transfusion related adverse effects on beta-thalassemia major and new therapeutic approaches: A review study. Int J Pediatr 2020;8:11651-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Atmakusuma TD, Lubis AM. Correlation of serum ferritin and liver iron concentration with transient liver elastography in adult thalassemia intermedia patients with blood transfusion. J Blood Med 2021;12:235-43.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Eghbali A, Mehrabi S, Ghandi Y, Eghbali A, Dabiri M, Mousavi_Hasanzadeh M. The correlation between serum ferritin, serum troponin t, cardiac T2* MRI and echocardiographic findings in patients with thalassemia major. Iran J Blood Cancer 2020;12:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Bayav M, Isiksalan Ozbulbul N, Bor O. Assessment of cardiac and liver iron overload by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with thalassemia major: Short-term follow-up. J Int Med Res 2020;48: 300060520934260.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Mortazavi Ardestani R, Ardestani M. Evaluation of the relationship between hepatic and cardiac iron overload with MRI T2* and carotid intima media thickness with Doppler ultrasound in beta thalassemia major patients. Iran J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020;11:30-40.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Çetinçakmak MG, Hattapoğlu S, Söker M, Ekici F, Yilmaz K, Göya C, et al. Evaluation of the relationship between splenic iron overload and liver, heart and muscle features evident on T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Adv Clin Exp Med 2020;29:475-80.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Abdallah WH, Ibrahim AM, Eissa HM, Abdel-Rahman AS. Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of myocardial iron overload in thalassemic patients. Egypt J Hosp Med 2020;81:1845-57.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Wahidiyat PA, Liauw F, Sekarsari D, Putriasih SA, Berdoukas V, Pennell DJ. Evaluation of cardiac and hepatic iron overload in thalassemia major patients with T2* magnetic resonance imaging. Hematology 2017;22:501-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Abo-Shanab AM, Kholoussi N, Habib D, Helwa IA, Hussin G, Omar N, et al. Use of echocardiography and glutathione S-transferase to detect heart complications in β-thalassemic patients. Egypt Pharm J 2020;19:244.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Nassef S, El Shenoufy M, Rawi R, El Demerdash D, Hassan M, Mustafa H, et al. Assessment of atherosclerosis in peripheral and central circulation in adult β thalassemia patients by color doppler ultrasound: Egyptian experience. J Vasc Res 2020;57:206-12.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Meloni A, Martini N, Positano V, De Luca A, Pistoia L, Sbragi S, et al. Myocardial iron overload by cardiovascular magnetic resonance native segmental T1 mapping: A sensitive approach that correlates with cardiac complications. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021;23:70.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Azarkeivan A, Hashemieh M, Shirkavand A, Sheibani K. Correlation between heart, liver and pancreas hemosiderosis measured by MRI T2* among thalassemia major patients from Iran. Arch Iran Med 2016;19:96-100.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Appleton CP. Two-dimensional and doppler evaluation of left ventricular filling, including pulmonary venous flow velocity. In: Diastology E-Book: Clinical Approach to Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction. 2020. p. 106.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Bilo G, Dolan E, O'Brien E, Facchetti R, Soranna D, Zambon A, et al. The impact of systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability on mortality is age dependent: Data from the Dublin outcome study. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020;27:355-64.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Racine H, Guzzetti E, Tastet L, Shen M, Larose É, Clavel M, et al. Accuracy of stroke volume by phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance in aortic stenosis: A comparison of measure in left ventricular outflow tract vs. ascending aorta. Can J Cardiol 2020;36:S77-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Azarkeivan A, Hashemieh M, Akhlaghpoor S, Shirkavand A, Yaseri M, Sheibani K. Relation between serum ferritin and liver and heart MRI T2* in beta thalassaemia major patients. East Mediterr Health J 2013;19:727-32.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Eghbali A, Taherahmadi H, Shahbazi M, Bagheri B, Ebrahimi L. Association between serum ferritin level, cardiac and hepatic T2-star MRI in patients with major β-thalassemia. Iran J Ped Hematol Oncol 2014;4:17-21.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Majd Z, Haghpanah S, Ajami GH, Matin S, Namazi H, Bardestani M, et al. Serum ferritin levels correlation with heart and liver MRI and LIC in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015;17:e24959.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Ulger Z, Aydinok Y, Gurses D, Levent E, Ozyurek AR. Stiffness of the abdominal aorta in beta-thalassemia major patients related with body iron load. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2006;28:647-52.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Aessopos A, Farmakis D, Tsironi M, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Matzourani M, Fragodimiri C, et al. Endothelial function and arterial stiffness in sickle-thalassemia patients. Atherosclerosis 2007;191:427-32.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Silvilairat S, Charoenkwan P, Saekho S, Tantiworawit A, Srichairatanakool S. Early detection of ventricular dysfunction by tissue Doppler echocardiography related to cardiac iron overload in patients with thalassemia. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021;37:91-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Aypar E, Alehan D, Hazirolan T, Gümrük F. The efficacy of tissue Doppler imaging in predicting myocardial iron load in patients with beta-thalassemia major: Correlation with T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2010;26:413-21.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Alpendurada F, Carpenter JP, Deac M, Kirk P, Walker JM, Porter JB, et al. Relation of myocardial T2* to right ventricular function in thalassaemia major. Eur Heart J 2010;31:1648-54.  Back to cited text no. 28
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
Previous article  Next article
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed138    
    Printed4    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded18    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal