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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13

Correlation of serum apelin level with carotid intima–media thickness and insulin resistance in a sample of Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

1 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
3 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
4 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls in Cairo, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
5 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Walaa Mohamed Shipl
Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_675_20

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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem in Egypt, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Measurement of the carotid Intima-media thickness (CIMT) allows early detection of atherosclerotic blood vessel diseases. Apelin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that may be associated with insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to assess the level of serum apelin in patients with T2DM and its relation to IR and CIMT. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 60 patients with T2DM and 30 healthy controls. T2DM was diagnosed based on American Diabetes Association criteria. The study was carried out at Al-Zahraa University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, through the period from June to December 2019. The laboratory investigations included serum apelin and blood glucose hemostasis markers. CIMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasonography. Results: Patients' group had a statistically significant higher apelin level than healthy controls (407.96 ± 291.07 versus 83.32 ± 10.55 ng/dL, P < 0.001). The correlation analysis showed that the serum apelin level correlated positively with glycemic indices, body weight, and waist circumference (P < 0.05). At cutoff value of >96 ng/dL, the serum apelin exhibited a sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 96.7%, positive predictive value of 98.1%, and negative predictive value of 96.5%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 95.1%. Serum apelin correlated positively with CIMT (r = 0.296, P = 0.022). Logistic regression analysis showed that systolic and diastolic blood pressures, Homeostasis Model Assessment of IR, and CIMT were independent predictors of serum apelin. Conclusion: Serum apelin may be correlated with the degree of carotid atherosclerosis and hence can be used as a prognostic biomarker.

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