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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 29

The role of nutritional interventions in prostate cancer: A review


1 Uro-Oncology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Students' Scientific Research Center; Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Research Center For Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN); Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
6 Uro-Oncology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Laleh Sharifi
Uro-Oncology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_975_20

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The high prevalence rate in conjunction with the long latency period made prostate cancer (PCa) an attractive and reasonable candidate for preventive measures. So far, several dietary and nutritional interventions have been implemented and studied with the aim of preventing the development or delaying the progression of PCa. Calorie restriction accompanied by weight loss has been shown to be associated with decreased likelihood of aggressive PCa. Supplements have played a major role in nutritional interventions. While genistein and lycopene seemed promising as preventive agents, minerals such as zinc and selenium were shown to be devoid of protective effects. The role of vitamins has been widely studied, with special emphasis on vitamins with antioxidant properties. Data related to Vitamin A and Vitamin C were rather controversial and positive effects were of insignificant magnitude. Vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of PCa in high-risk groups like smokers. However, when it comes to Vitamin D, the serum levels might affect the risk of PCa. While deficiency of this vitamin was associated with increased risk, high serum levels imposed the risk of aggressive disease. Despite the seemingly promising effects of dietary measures on PCa, no firm recommendation could be made due to the limitations of the studies and evidence. However, the majority of these advices could be followed by the patients with the intent of living a healthy lifestyle.


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