Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 793
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Previous article Browse articles Next article 
J Res Med Sci 2019,  24:94

Diabetes and cancer: A comprehensive review

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA

Date of Submission10-Apr-2019
Date of Decision30-Jun-2019
Date of Acceptance26-Aug-2019
Date of Web Publication25-Oct-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manal Abudawood
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_242_19

Rights and Permissions

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common worldwide endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action or both. A number of clinical studies have investigated diabetes and its causal relation with neoplasm. Several epidemiological studies have found that diabetic patients have an increased risk of different types of cancers, for example liver, pancreas, gastric (stomach), colorectum, kidney, and breast, and it is predicted that hyperglycemic state observed in diabetic milieu enhances the cancer risk in prediabetic and diabetic individuals. To explore the strength of evidence and biases in the claimed associations between type 2 DM (T2DM) and risk of developing cancer, an umbrella review of the evidence across published meta-analyses or systematic reviews is performed. The concurrence of T2DM with the growing burden of cancer globally has generated interest in defining the epidemiological and biological relationships between these medical conditions. Through this review, it was found that diabetes could be related to cancer. Yet, the results from most of the studies are obscure and conflicting and need a robust research so that the link between diabetes and cancer could be firmly and impeccably documented.

Keywords: Breast neoplasms, diabetic complications, gastric neoplasms, hepatic neoplasms

How to cite this article:
Abudawood M. Diabetes and cancer: A comprehensive review. J Res Med Sci 2019;24:94

How to cite this URL:
Abudawood M. Diabetes and cancer: A comprehensive review. J Res Med Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Mar 28];24:94. Available from: https://www.jmsjournal.net/text.asp?2019/24/1/94/269897

  Introduction Top

Diabetes is emerging as one of the most prevalent human ailments next to cardiovascular diseases and is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide (WHO). Etiologically, diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by abnormal glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. The root cause of diabetes involves complex mechanisms. Diabetes is of two types – Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 DM is juvenile diabetes/insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) characterized by pancreas failure to produce insulin on account of beta cell destruction. It is prevalent in young age like in children, adolescents and young adults. On the other hand, type 2 DM (T2DM) is adult-onset diabetes and is called as non-IDDM resulting due to inability of cells/tissues to respond properly to the action of insulin. Apart from these, other factors such as genetic and metabolic abnormalities are also accountable.[1] A number of studies has related diabetes to cancer risk. Furthermore, growing evidences suggested an abnormal glucose homeostasis as an independent risk factor for the development of specific neoplasms and affecting the prognosis of cancer.[2],[3] Several epidemiological studies have found that diabetic patients have an increased risk of different types of cancers, for example, liver, biliary tract, pancreas, stomach, colorectum, kidney, bladder, breast, and endometrium.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12] Contrarily, a reduced incidence of prostate cancer has been reported in individuals with diabetes.[13] In recent years, spectacular advances took place in interpreting the etiology of diabetes and cancer. Novel cancer biomarkers (CBs) are studied to evaluate the risk of cancer in prediabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Therefore, challenge in the cancer research would be the identification of novel CBs that could be used as prognostic and diagnostic tools. CBs are present in tumor tissues or fluids and include a wide variety of molecules such as DNA, mRNA, transcription factors, cell surface receptors, secreted proteins, and small metabolites.

In the present review, search on different published data across PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar on observational, cohort, case studies, and meta-analysis studying the correlation between diabetes and different neoplasms has been performed. Around 9 published studies on pancreatic cancer, 8 on gastric cancer and 17 on hepatic cancer, 6 colorectum cancer, 8 breast cancer, and 2–3 articles on prostate cancer extracted from the survey were profoundly studied from the total of 77 references included in the review [Table 1]. The largest proportion of cancer cases attributable to the increase in prevalence of diabetes and high body mass index (BMI) was in low-income and middle-income countries like Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.[14]
Table 1: Summary of included studies involving the association between diabetes and cancer risk

Click here to view

Diabetes and total cancer

There are strong evidences linking cancer with diabetes. A number of epidemiological studies has investigated the association between diabetes and cancer risk.[15] In a European study on 17 varied populations, cancer mortality rate was 1.12, 1.28, 1.57 in prediabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, and known diabetes cases, respectively.[16] Gender-related differences in cancer and diabetes were inconspicuous.[17] Some studies found increased risk of cancer in diabetes while others did not. A recent analysis by Qi et al. 2019 investigated the risk of 23 common types of cancer among patients with T2DM on a large sample size (8485) in mainland China. The standardized incidence ratios of total cancer were 1.34 and 1.62 among males and females, respectively. Enhanced risk of cancer of the prostate, blood, skin, thyroid, kidney, liver, pancreas, lung, colorectum, and stomach was found in T2DM males and greater risks of cancer of the nasopharynx, liver, esophagus, thyroid, lung, pancreas, lymphoma/leukemia, uterus, colorectum, breast, cervix, and stomach among females with T2DM. In contrast, there was significantly decreased risk of gallbladder cancer in females with T2DM.[18] Diabetes as a risk factor for all-site cancer in both women and men, with an excess risk of cancer slightly greater for women than men was reported by Ohkuma et al., 2018.[19] In addition, it is predicted that hyperglycemic state observed in diabetic milieu enhances the cancer risk in prediabetic individuals. An increased incidence of cancer mortality with fasting blood glucose in the prediabetic individuals (6.1–6.9 mmol/L) was reported in a Korean study.[20] Hence, epidemiological studies provide evidence that diabetes and prediabetes are associated with an increased risk of total cancer.

Pancreatic cancer

Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (DPAC) is the fifth leading cause of death related to cancer in developed countries and is the thirteenth most common type of cancer worldwide.[21] Approximately, 80% of the pancreatic cancer are associated with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance.[22] A recent meta-analysis of 88 cohort studies documented a 94% increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with diabetes compared to nondiabetic individuals.[23],[24] The link between pancreatic cancer and diabetes is intricated due to the fact that abnormal glucose homeostasis may be underlying factor for the onset of such cancers. In a recent large pooled analysis in Asian individuals, chen et al., 2017 showed an increased mortality risk for pancreatic cancer in diabetic subjects.[25] According to recent reviews, patients with T2DM has thrice the tendency to develop pancreatic cancer compared to nondiabetic individuals.[25],[26],[27] Several studies had hypothesized that the diabetes is a consequence of asymptomatic pancreatic cancer while some had conflicting observations proving that DM (type 2) is really a cause, not a consequence of pancreatic cancer. Nevertheless, Gullo et al., 1994 reported that the T2DM could be consequence of pancreatic cancer and is more stronger in recently diagnosed individuals.[28] Diabetes duration <1 year was reported to carry the highest risk for DPAC as reported by Ben et al. 2011.[29]

Gastric cancer

Studies examining the relationship between DM and the risk of gastric cancer-related mortality have produced inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of twenty-two cohort studies reporting data on 8,559,861 participants observed diabetes as a predisposing factor that increased the risk of gastric cancer in men.[30] Parallely, a prospective study in Japan involving 97,771 volunteers, examined approximately 61% increase in cancer risk in diabetic males. However, other studies reported contradictory results with respect to cancer risk in females.[31] In a meta-analysis by Ge et al., 2011, a subgrouped analysis revealed 18% increased risk of gastric cancer in diabetic women compared to diabetic men.[7] In an investigation by Jee et al., 2005 increased fasting serum glucose and diabetes were considered as independent risk factors for gastric cancer, and the relative risk tends to increase accompanying an increased fasting serum glucose level.[20] Likewise, significant association between diabetes and the higher risk of gastric cancer has been documented by Lin et al.[32] According to Lin et al., 2011 hyperglycemia may account for generation of imbalance in the energy/metabolism and impairment of immune system that could progressively lead to gastric cancer. While many studies and meta-analysis reported significant difference between diabetic and nondiabetic individuals, several other studies reported diversified results. In a cohort by Chodick et al., 2010 they concluded no significant correlation between incidence of gastric cancer and diabetes.[33] In addition, in a study reported by Xu et al., 2015 there was no significant correlation obtained in risk of gastric cancer with diabetes in both genders.[34]

Hepatic cancer

There are some intriguing findings from the previous literature on the association of diabetes with liver cancer. In a study in US on 2061 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 6183 control, 2.8-fold enhancement in the risk of hepatic cancer in diabetic individuals was reported.[35] Similar findings were obtained in Greece. They examined 333 cases of HCC and 363 controls. Diabetic patients were at a 1.86-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99–3.51) higher risk of liver cancer.[36] These findings strongly evident the correlation of diabetes with HCC. A three-fold increased risk of liver cancer has been reported in earlier investigations after adjustment of confounding factors such as alcoholism and viral hepatitis.[37],[38] Several studies have elucidated the relationship between diabetes and HCC with different etiologies. An extensive US-based study on hepatoma revealed profound results; the hepatoma risk was elevated in diabetic individuals manifested with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or with alcoholic cirrhosis.[39] Contrarily, subsequent studies analyzed that the risk of HCC increased in diabetic individuals independent of alcoholism and/or viral hepatitis.[40],[41] In view of the above contradictions, studies exploring the relationships between diabetes and hepatocellular carcinomas with different etiologies have been analyzed separately. Risk of HCC was found to double in diabetic individuals in China with chronic hepatitis as speculated by Li et al., 2017.[42] Parallelly, a study in Europe investigating on the risk of HCC in diabetes in association with chronic hepatitis C observed that HCC incidence was 11.4% and 5.0% in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals, respectively.[43] Contrary observations were speculated in cohort involving 54,979 individuals, wherein increased HCC risk was found in HCC-negative individuals.[44] There is discrepancy in the observations on the risk of HCC in diabetes and need further research to be clearly understood. The underlying mechanism probably linking the risk of HCC and diabetes involves many intricated mechanisms. It has been suggested that low insulin and hyperglycemia in diabetes may account for increased virological response and impairment in HCV eradication leading to fibrosis which progresses to cirrhosis in patients with T2DM and HCV.[45],[46],[47],[48]

Association between diabetes and hepatitis B-related HCC also seems to remain unclear. Increased risk (2–3 fold) of HCC in diabetic patients positive for HBV was reported in a Taiwan-based study.[49] Supportingly, a study by Amano et al., 2014 on HCC patients with HBV infection found T2DM to be significantly related to HCC in HBV patients.[50] Contradictorily, a cross-sectional study on cirrhotic patients with HBV with and without HCC found that diabetes was not a significant risk factor for HCC.[51] Similarly, Gao et al., 2013 found that diabetes was analyzed to be independent of the prospect of HCC in cirrhotic patients with HBV infection.[52] Involvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver and alcohol abuse also need to be accounted as they contribute significantly as risk factors for HCC in diabetes. Several reports and reviews suggested diabetes could be risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and subsequent cryptogenic HCC.[53]

Colorectal cancer

It is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in global incidence (1.8 million cases and 10.2% of the total cancer) being higher in males compared to females.[54] The association between diabetes and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been elucidated in numerous epidemiological studies and meta-analysis have been published.[55] Diabetic individuals are highly prone to CRC in comparison with nondiabetics. A systemic analysis of 8 selected studies showed a robustic correlation of T2DM with the 1.21-fold enhanced risk. The analysis resulted in spectacular findings where diabetic women exhibited greater risk of developing CRC than men.[56] Affirmative results linking CRC with diabetes in the above analysis can be thus a compelling evidence. Intriguing results were obtained in a meta-analysis report wherein the risk of cancer was found to be independent of geographic location, sex, family history of CRC, smoking, physical activity, and BMI.[57],[58] Zhu et al., 2017 analyzed 36 cohort studies with 2,299,012 participants to explore the interrelationship between diabetes and CRC. The meta-analysis revealed that the patients with diabetes will have a 5-year shorter survival in colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer with a 18%, 19%, and 16% decrease in overall survival (OS), respectively, compared to nondiabetic individuals. The aforementioned studies indicates that diabetes had a negative effect on CRC in OS.[59] The biological mechanism linkage between diabetes and CRC prognosis is still unclear. Currently, it is hypothesized that hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and insulin/insulin like growth factors (IGF) are probably involved in the progression of diabetes to CRC.

Breast cancer and other sex related cancers

A positive association between diabetes and risk of breast cancer has been reported in females. Breast cancer has emerged as the most common ailment affecting the morbidity and mortality among females worldwide.[60] Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and changes in the signaling of growth hormones and steroid hormones associated with diabetes may affect the risk of breast neoplasm. A 20% enhancement in the risk of breast cancer and T2DM have been surveyed.[11] Similarly meta-analysis by Hardefeldt et al., 2012 on 43 studies including 40 and 6 studies investigating breast cancer in women and in men, respectively, found significantly increased risk of breast cancer in Diabetic women. However, increased risk of breast cancer in males was not statistically significant, and it was concluded that diabetes is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.[61] Several factors are responsible in etiology underlying the breast cancer. Obesity and diabetes are considered as some of the risk factors for the onset of breast cancer. Furthermore, increased estrogen in females is thought to be a possible link between breast cancer and diabetes in female individuals.[62] Obesity is considered as one of the predisposing factors for cancer even in nondiabetic individuals with impaired fasting glucose levels.[63] Other sex-related cancers such as endometrial and prostate cancer are also studied, yet the results of most of the studies are inconclusive. A strong positive association of diabetes with increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported in females in meta-analysis of 13 case–control and 3 cohort studies.[12] Hyperinsulinemia and hyperestrogenemia associated with low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are considered as etiological factors responsible for stimulating the proliferation of endometrial cells causing cancer.[64] A high risk estimate of risk ratio (RR) 1.65, 95% CI 1.50–1.81 in a meta-analysis is corroborative with the assumptions linking endometrial cancer with T2DM. Yet the results are nonconvincing due to heterogeneity among the clinical studies.[65] Contradictory reports were found in case of breast and ovarian cancer. The outcome in these studies were supported by a lower risk estimate in a meta-analysis (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.32 and RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34, respectively) and were associated with low heterogeneity among the studies.[66],[67]

Diabetes and prostate cancer

In relation to diabetes, contrasting results were obtained for prostate cancer compared with other type of cancer. In a meta-analysis studies by Kasper and Giovannucci, it was found that diabetic men were at a significantly decreased risk of developing prostate cancer.[13] The presence of low levels of testosterone and SHBG in diabetic men could be responsible for this conflicting results.[68]

To eliminate the bias in the stage of diagnosis of cancer and its risk, a meta-analysis was performed by Lee et al., 2016. They investigated the incidence of death due to prostate cancer in men in preexisting diabetic individuals.[69] Preexisting diabetes are patients diagnosed with diabetes before the diagnosis of the prostate cancer. Conflicting results were obtained in a meta-analysis studying the correlation between preexisting diabetes and the death incidence in prostate cancer patients. A 29% increase in prostate cancer-specific mortality was observed in preexisting diabetes. Further, focusing on subgroup analysis in T2DM in particular, no significant correlation was obtained between preexisting T2DM and prostate cancer-related mortality. Based on heterogeneity in the findings, further investigations should be undertaken to ascertain the link between diabetes and prostate cancer.

Kidney cancer

There has been remarkable increase in the incidence of kidney cancer over the past few decades. Factors such as hypertension, obesity, and smoking are identified as risk factors underlying renal carcinoma and T2DM. Several evidences across epidemiological studies showed diabetic patients to have an increased risk of cancer at several sites, yet diabetes as a risk factor for kidney cancer remains unclear. In a meta-analysis by Larsson and Wolk, 2011 on 9 cohort studies revealed significant data. Patients with diabetes exhibited significant increase in the risk of cancer compared to nondiabetic individuals indicating association between diabetes and kidney cancer.[9] Like other cancers, there has been disparity in findings in the studies linking diabetes and kidney cancer, especially in terms of gender. A recent analysis on a large cohort of 117,570 women and 48,866 men in US studying the risk of diabetes and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) revealed astonishing results. Women with diabetes had an increased risk of RCC compared to nondiabetes women with no significant association in men. T2DM was found independently associated with a greater risk of RCC in women but not in men.[70]

Lung cancer

Lung cancer has also emerged as one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and the second most common malignancy in men and women in USA.[71] A case–controlled study analyzed cancer survival among lung cancer patients with and without diabetes and found the interplay between lung cancer and diabetes increased the 5-year OS for lung cancer patients without DM (OS - with diabetes 20; without diabetes 29%) concluding diabetes not causing adverse impact on lung cancer survival.[72]

Link between diabetes and cancer

A number of assumptions and mechanisms responsible for etiology underlying diabetes have been reported. Many factors are considered responsible for the cause/relationship of diabetes with cancer. Nevertheless, conditions such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation are considered to be of prime significance in progression of diabetes to cancer. Hyperinsulinemia is suggested to be involved in carcinogenesis directly by promoting cancer initiation and progression and indirectly through IGF-1. IGF-1 has powerful mitogenic and antiapoptotic activities and plays a pivotal role in triggering cancer initiation.[73],[74]

Correlation of diabetes with oxidative stress is another area of concern that needs thorough investigation. Increased oxidative damage in diabetes is considered responsible for DNA damage, mutational changes in oncogenes and eventually to cancer.[75] The link between cancer and diabetes is still obscure. To add to better understanding and to elucidate the role of hyperglycemia with cancer, parallelly, we conducted a case–controlled study on T2DM individuals in Saudi population. Intriguingly, we found raised levels of CBs in T2DM individuals compared to nondiabetic controls. However, the correlation of CBs with hyperglycemic state was not noteworthy in our study with an exception to certain marker (unpublished data).

  Conclusion Top

Based on the survey of the published data, analysis from this review indicates that diabetic individuals have an enhanced risk of developing cancer. Yet, whether diabetes lead to cancer or cancer causes diabetes is still obscure. Further research needs to be undertaken so that the etiology behind diabetes and cancer could be explicitly obtained.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2007. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S4-41.  Back to cited text no. 1
Lam EK, Batty GD, Huxley RR, Martiniuk AL, Barzi F, Lam TH, et al. Associations of diabetes mellitus with site-specific cancer mortality in the Asia-Pacific region. Ann Oncol 2011;22:730-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
Vigneri P, Frasca F, Sciacca L, Pandini G, Vigneri R. Diabetes and cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 2009;16:1103-23.  Back to cited text no. 3
Wang C, Wang X, Gong G, Ben Q, Qiu W, Chen Y, et al. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int J Cancer 2012;130:1639-48.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ren HB, Yu T, Liu C, Li YQ. Diabetes mellitus and increased risk of biliary tract cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2011;22:837-47.  Back to cited text no. 5
Ben Q, Xu M, Ning X, Wang Y, Li Y. Diabetes mellitus and risk of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cancer 2011;47: 1928-37.  Back to cited text no. 6
Ge Z, Ben Q, Qian J, Wang Y, Li Y. Diabetes mellitus and risk of gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;23:1127-35.  Back to cited text no. 7
Jiang Y, Ben Q, Shen H, Lu W, Zhang Y, Zhu J. Diabetes mellitus and incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Epidemiol 2011;26:863-76.  Back to cited text no. 8
Larsson SC, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and incidence of kidney cancer: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Diabetologia 2011;54:1013-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
Larsson SC, Orsini N, Brismar K, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of bladder cancer: A meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2006;49:2819-23.  Back to cited text no. 10
Larsson SC, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2007;121:856-62.  Back to cited text no. 11
Friberg E, Orsini N, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of endometrial cancer: A meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2007;50:1365-74.  Back to cited text no. 12
Kasper JS, Giovannucci E. A meta-analysis of diabetes mellitus and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:2056-62.  Back to cited text no. 13
Pearson-Stuttard J, Zhou B, Kontis V, Bentham J, Gunter MJ, Ezzati M. Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to diabetes and high body-mass index: A comparative risk assessment. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018;6:95-104.  Back to cited text no. 14
Hirakawa Y, Ninomiya T, Mukai N, Doi Y, Hata J, Fukuhara M, et al. Association between glucose tolerance level and cancer death in a general Japanese population: The Hisayama study. Am J Epidemiol 2012;176:856-64.  Back to cited text no. 15
Zhou XH, Qiao Q, Zethelius B, Pyörälä K, Söderberg S, Pajak A, et al. Diabetes, prediabetes and cancer mortality. Diabetologia 2010;53:1867-76.  Back to cited text no. 16
Verlato G, Zoppini G, Bonora E, Muggeo M. Mortality from site-specific malignancies in type 2 diabetic patients from Verona. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1047-51.  Back to cited text no. 17
Qi J, He P, Yao H, Song R, Ma C, Cao M, et al. Cancer risk among patients with type 2 diabetes: A real-world study in Shanghai, China. J Diabetes 2019. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12926. [Epub In press].  Back to cited text no. 18
Ohkuma T, Peters SA, Woodward M. Sex differences in the association between diabetes and cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 121 cohorts including 20 million individuals and one million events. Diabetologia 2018;61:2140-54.  Back to cited text no. 19
Jee SH, Ohrr H, Sull JW, Yun JE, Ji M, Samet JM. Fasting serum glucose level and cancer risk in Korean men and women. JAMA 2005;293:194-202.  Back to cited text no. 20
Ries LA, Melbert D, Krapcho M, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2004. National Cancer Institute; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 21
Permert J, Ihse I, Jorfeldt L, von Schenck H, Arnqvist HJ, Larsson J. Pancreatic cancer is associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Eur J Surg 1993;159:101-7.  Back to cited text no. 22
Kuriki K, Hirose K, Tajima K. Diabetes and cancer risk for all and specific sites among Japanese men and women. Eur J Cancer Prev 2007;16:83-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
Batabyal P, Vander Hoorn S, Christophi C, Nikfarjam M. Association of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A meta-analysis of 88 studies. Ann Surg Oncol 2014;21:2453-62.  Back to cited text no. 24
Chen Y, Wu F, Saito E, Lin Y, Song M, Luu HN, et al. Association between type 2 diabetes and risk of cancer mortality: A pooled analysis of over 771,000 individuals in the Asia cohort consortium. Diabetologia 2017;60:1022-32.  Back to cited text no. 25
Coughlin SS, Calle EE, Teras LR, Petrelli J, Thun MJ. Diabetes mellitus as a predictor of cancer mortality in a large cohort of US adults. Am J Epidemiol 2004;159:1160-7.  Back to cited text no. 26
Rousseau MC, Parent ME, Pollak MN, Siemiatycki J. Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk in a population-based case-control study among men from Montreal, Canada. Int J Cancer 2006;118:2105-9.  Back to cited text no. 27
Gullo L, Pezzilli R, Morselli-Labate AM; Italian Pancreatic Cancer Study Group. Diabetes and the risk of pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 1994;331:81-4.  Back to cited text no. 28
Ben Q, Xu M, Ning X, Liu J, Hong S, Huang W, et al. Diabetes mellitus and risk of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cancer 2011;47:1928-37.  Back to cited text no. 29
Miao ZF, Xu H, Xu YY, Wang ZN, Zhao TT, Song YX, et al. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of gastric cancer: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Oncotarget 2017;8:44881-92.  Back to cited text no. 30
Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Otani T, Sasazuki S, Noda M, Tsugane S. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of cancer: Results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1871-7.  Back to cited text no. 31
Lin SW, Freedman ND, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC. Prospective study of self-reported diabetes and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011;20:954-61.  Back to cited text no. 32
Chodick G, Heymann AD, Rosenmann L, Green MS, Flash S, Porath A, et al. Diabetes and risk of incident cancer: A large population-based cohort study in Israel. Cancer Causes Control 2010;21:879-87.  Back to cited text no. 33
Xu HL, Tan YT, Epplein M, Li HL, Gao J, Gao YT, et al. Population-based cohort studies of type 2 diabetes and stomach cancer risk in Chinese men and women. Cancer Sci 2015;106:294-8.  Back to cited text no. 34
Davila JA, Morgan RO, Shaib Y, McGlynn KA, El-Serag HB. Diabetes increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States: A population based case control study. Gut 2005;54:533-9.  Back to cited text no. 35
Lagiou P, Kuper H, Stuver SO, Tzonou A, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO. Role of diabetes mellitus in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1096-9.  Back to cited text no. 36
Wideroff L, Gridley G, Mellemkjaer L, Chow WH, Linet M, Keehn S. Cancer incidence in a population-based cohort of patients hospitalized with diabetes mellitus in Denmark. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:1360-5.  Back to cited text no. 37
Ogunleye AA, Ogston SA, Morris AD, Evans JM. A cohort study of the risk of cancer associated with type 2 diabetes. Br J Cancer 2009;101:1199-201.  Back to cited text no. 38
El-Serag HB, Richardson PA, Everhart JE. The role of diabetes in hepatocellular carcinoma: A case-control study among United States veterans. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:2462-7.  Back to cited text no. 39
Turati F, Talamini R, Pelucchi C, Polesel J, Franceschi S, Crispo A, et al. Metabolic syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Br J Cancer 2013;108:222-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
El-Serag HB, Tran T, Everhart JE. Diabetes increases the risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2004;126:460-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
Li X, Xu H, Gao Y, Pan M, Wang L, Gao P. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C patients in China. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017;96:e6508.  Back to cited text no. 42
Veldt BJ, Chen W, Heathcote EJ, Wedemeyer H, Reichen J, Hofmann WP, et al. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Hepatology 2008;47:1856-62.  Back to cited text no. 43
Lai MS, Hsieh MS, Chiu YH, Chen TH. Type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: A cohort study in high prevalence area of hepatitis virus infection. Hepatology 2006;43:1295-302.  Back to cited text no. 44
Dai CY, Huang JF, Hsieh MY, Hou NJ, Lin ZY, Chen SC, et al. Insulin resistance predicts response to peginterferon-alpha/ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol 2009;50:712-8.  Back to cited text no. 45
Kralj D, Virović Jukić L, Stojsavljević S, Duvnjak M, Smolić M, Čurčić IB. Hepatitis C virus, insulin resistance, and steatosis. J Clin Transl Hepatol 2016;4:66-75.  Back to cited text no. 46
Bosch FX, Ribes J, Díaz M, Cléries R. Primary liver cancer: Worldwide incidence and trends. Gastroenterology 2004;127:S5-16.  Back to cited text no. 47
Bruix J, Sherman M; American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: An update. Hepatology 2011;53:1020-2.  Back to cited text no. 48
Chen CL, Yang HI, Yang WS, Liu CJ, Chen PJ, You SL, et al. Metabolic factors and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma by chronic hepatitis B/C infection: A follow-up study in Taiwan. Gastroenterology 2008;135:111-21.  Back to cited text no. 49
Amano K, Kawaguchi T, Kuromatsu R, Kawaguchi A, Miyajima I, Ide T, et al. Time trends of clinical characteristics in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection: A field survey between 2000 and 2012. Mol Clin Oncol 2014;2:927-34.  Back to cited text no. 50
Chen CT, Chen JY, Wang JH, Chang KC, Tseng PL, Kee KM, et al. Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity are not significant risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in an HBV – And HCV-endemic area of Southern Taiwan. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2013;29:451-9.  Back to cited text no. 51
Gao C, Fang L, Zhao HC, Li JT, Yao SK. Potential role of diabetes mellitus in the progression of cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma: A cross-sectional case-control study from Chinese patients with HBV infection. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2013;12:385-93.  Back to cited text no. 52
Ali Kamkar MM, Ahmad R, Alsmadi O, Behbehani K. Insight into the impact of diabetes mellitus on the increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: Mini-review. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2014;13:57.  Back to cited text no. 53
World Health Organization. Latest Global Cancer Data. World Health Organization; 2018.  Back to cited text no. 54
Zelenko Z, Gallagher EJ. Diabetes and cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2014;43:167-85.  Back to cited text no. 55
Guraya SY. Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis and systematic review. World J Gastroenterol 2015;21:6026-31.  Back to cited text no. 56
Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 2010;60:277-300.  Back to cited text no. 57
Robertson RP. Chronic oxidative stress as a central mechanism for glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes. J Biol Chem 2004;279:42351-4.  Back to cited text no. 58
Zhu B, Wu X, Wu B, Pei D, Zhang L, Wei L. The relationship between diabetes and colorectal cancer prognosis: A meta-analysis based on the cohort studies. PLoS One 2017;12:e0176068.  Back to cited text no. 59
Key TJ, Verkasalo PK, Banks E. Epidemiology of breast cancer. Lancet Oncol 2001;2:133-40.  Back to cited text no. 60
Hardefeldt PJ, Edirimanne S, Eslick GD. Diabetes increases the risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis. Endocr Relat Cancer 2012;19:793-803.  Back to cited text no. 61
Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ, Berrino F, Peeters PH, Biessy C, et al. Postmenopausal serum androgens, oestrogens and breast cancer risk: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Endocr Relat Cancer 2005;12:1071-82.  Back to cited text no. 62
Ortiz-Mendoza CM. Impaired fasting glucose in breast cancer survivors of a general hospital at Mexico city: A case series study. J Res Med Sci 2019;24:9.  Back to cited text no. 63
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Key TJ, Pike MC. The dose-effect relationship between 'unopposed' oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: Its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk. Br J Cancer 1988;57:205-12.  Back to cited text no. 64
Liao C, Zhang D, Mungo C, Tompkins DA, Zeidan AM. Is diabetes mellitus associated with increased incidence and disease-specific mortality in endometrial cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Gynecol Oncol 2014;135:163-71.  Back to cited text no. 65
Wang L, Wang L, Zhang J, Wang B, Liu H. Association between diabetes mellitus and subsequent ovarian cancer in women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017;96:e6396.  Back to cited text no. 66
Anothaisintawee T, Wiratkapun C, Lerdsitthichai P, Kasamesup V, Wongwaisayawan S, Srinakarin J, et al. Risk factors of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Public Health 2013;25:368-87.  Back to cited text no. 67
Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Tsantes A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2004; 47: 1071–8.  Back to cited text no. 68
Lee J, Giovannucci E, Jeon JY. Diabetes and mortality in patients with prostate cancer: A meta-analysis. Springerplus 2016;5:1548.  Back to cited text no. 69
Graff RE, Sanchez A, Tobias DK, Rodríguez D, Barrisford GW, Blute ML, et al. Type 2 diabetes in relation to the risk of renal cell carcinoma among men and women in two large prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Care 2018;41:1432-7.  Back to cited text no. 70
Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65:87-108.  Back to cited text no. 71
Karlin NJ, Amin SB, Buras MR, Kosiorek HE, Verona PM, Cook CB. Patient outcomes from lung cancer and diabetes mellitus: A matched case-control study. Future Sci OA 2018;4:FSO248.  Back to cited text no. 72
Giovannucci E. Insulin and colon cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1995;6:164-79.  Back to cited text no. 73
Hu FB, Manson JE, Liu S, Hunter D, Colditz GA, Michels KB, et al. Prospective study of adult onset diabetes mellitus (type 2) and risk of colorectal cancer in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:542-7.  Back to cited text no. 74
Lee SC, Chan JC. Evidence for DNA damage as a biological link between diabetes and cancer. Chin Med J (Engl) 2015;128:1543-8.  Back to cited text no. 75


  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Link between Blood Cell-Associated Inflammatory Indices and Chemotherapy-Induced Hyperglycemia in Women Affected with Breast Cancer: Clinical Studies
Krishna Prasad, Suresh Rao, Sanath Kumar Hegde, Thomas George, Rhea Katherine D'souza, Sucharitha Suresh, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga
South Asian Journal of Cancer. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Cancer Disparities among Pacific Islanders: A Review of Sociocultural Determinants of Health in the Micronesian Region
Eric Pineda, Ryan Benavente, Megan Y. Gimmen, Nicole V. DeVille, Kekoa Taparra
Cancers. 2023; 15(5): 1392
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Association of metabolic syndrome and the risk of bladder cancer: A prospective cohort study
Shuo Fang, Yuchen Liu, Huiru Dai, Tianshun Gao, Leli Zeng, Rui Sun, Zilong Zheng, Jinqiu Yuan, Bin Xia, Yihang Pan
Frontiers in Oncology. 2022; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 The High Prevalence of Short-Term Elevation of Tumor Markers Due to Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Patients
Xi-yu Liu
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. 2022; Volume 15: 1113
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Antitumor Effects and Mechanisms of Metabolic Syndrome Medications on Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Kyoko Oura, Asahiro Morishita, Joji Tani, Tsutomu Masaki
Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. 2022; Volume 9: 1279
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Diabetes and skin cancers: Risk factors, molecular mechanisms and impact on prognosis
Elena-Codruta Dobrica, Madalina Laura Banciu, Vincent Kipkorir, Mohammad Amin Khazeei Tabari, Madeleine Jemima Cox, L V Simhachalam Kutikuppala, Mihnea-Alexandru Gaman
World Journal of Clinical Cases. 2022; 10(31): 11214
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Metformin and malignant neoplasms: a possible mechanism of antitumor action and prospects for use in practice
K. O. Kuznetsov, E. R. Safina, D. V. Gaimakova, Ya. S. Frolova, I. Yu. Oganesyan, A. G. Sadertdinova, K. A. Nazmieva, A. H. Islamgulov, A. R. Karimova, A. M. Galimova, E. V. Rizvanova
Problems of Endocrinology. 2022; 68(5): 45
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Influence of diabetes mellitus on free radical processes in the heart in rats with Guerin’s carcinoma and characteristics of malignant lesions depending on the gender of animals
O.I. Kit, E.M. Frantsiyants, I.A. Goroshinskaya, I.V. Kaplieva, A.I. Shikhlyarova, L.A. Nemashkalova, L.K. Trepitaki, P.S. Kachesova, O.V. Bykadorova, E.V. Serdyukova, N.A. Maksimova, M.G. Ilchenko, L.G. Akopian, E.I. Agarkova, M.M. Sergeeva, I.M. Kotieva, M.I. Morozova
CARDIOMETRY. 2022; (21): 27
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 The Effect of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on the Short-Term Outcomes and Prognosis of Stage I–III Colorectal Cancer: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis
Yong Cheng, Yu-Xi Cheng, Xiao-Yu Liu, Bing Kang, Wei Tao, Dong Peng
Cancer Management and Research. 2022; Volume 14: 205
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Drug repositioning in drug discovery of T2DM and repositioning potential of antidiabetic agents
Sha Zhu, Qifeng Bai, Lanqing Li, Tingyang Xu
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 (Pro)renin receptor and insulin signalling regulate cell proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
Shigemitsu Sato, Takuo Hirose, Koji Ohba, Fumihiko Watanabe, Tomoki Watanabe, Kazuya Minato, Akari Endo, Hiroki Ito, Takefumi Mori, Kazuhiro Takahashi
The Journal of Biochemistry. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Skeletal muscle as a treatment target for older adults with diabetes mellitus: The importance of a multimodal intervention based on functional category
Takuya Omura, Atsushi Araki
Geriatrics & Gerontology International. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Diabetic hyperglycemia promotes primary tumor progression through glycation-induced tumor extracellular matrix stiffening
Wenjun Wang, Lauren A. Hapach, Lauren Griggs, Kyra Smart, Yusheng Wu, Paul V. Taufalele, Matthew M. Rowe, Katherine M. Young, Madison E. Bates, Andrew C. Johnson, Nicholas J. Ferrell, Ambra Pozzi, Cynthia A. Reinhart-King
Science Advances. 2022; 8(46)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Olea europaea var. Oleaster a promising nutritional food with in vitro antioxidant, antiglycation, antidiabetic and antiproliferative effects
Imad Kabach, Najat Bouchmaa, Reda Ben Mrid, Zakia Zouaoui, Mohammed El Maadoudi, Ayoub Kounnoun, Fadoua Asraoui, Fouad El Mansouri, Abdelmajid Zyad, Francesco Cacciola, Yassine Oulad El Majdoub, Luigi Mondello, Mohamed Nhiri
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 A Deep Learning Based Approach for Grading of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Large Fundus Image Dataset
Ayesha Mehboob, Muhammad Usman Akram, Norah Saleh Alghamdi, Anum Abdul Salam
Diagnostics. 2022; 12(12): 3084
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Metformin, Statin Use, and Female Colorectal Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan
Shu-Hua Hsu, De-Kai Syu, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chih-Kuang Liu, Ming-Chih Chen
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(15): 4469
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Berberine retarded the growth of gastric cancer xenograft tumors by targeting hepatocyte nuclear factor 4a
Ling-Li Li, Ze Peng, Qian Hu, Li-Jun Xu, Xin Zou, Dong-Mei Huang, Ping Yi
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 2022; 14(4): 842
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Metformin alleviates monoamine oxidase-related vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in rats with diet-induced obesity
Loredana N. Ionica,Laura Gai?a,Anca M. Bîna,Raluca So?dean,Rodica Lighezan,Alexandra Sima,Daniel Mali?a,Octavian M. Cre?u,Ovidiu Burlacu,Danina M. Muntean,Adrian Sturza
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Association between Diabetes and Dental Caries in Spanish Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study Including 23,089 Adults
Louis Jacob,Jae-Il Shin,Igor Grabovac,Josep Maria Haro,Ai Koyanagi,Mark A. Tully,Mike Trott,Jong Yeob Kim,Shahina Pardhan,Lee Smith,Guillermo F. López Sánchez
Oral. 2021; 1(3): 281
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 The Current and Potential Therapeutic Use of Metformin—The Good Old Drug
Józef Drzewoski,Markolf Hanefeld
Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(2): 122
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Regulatory MicroRNAs in T2DM and Breast Cancer
Ilhaam Ayaz Durrani,Attya Bhatti,Peter John
Processes. 2021; 9(5): 819
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Identification of high-risk and low-risk clusters and estimation of the relative risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in provinces of Iran during 2006–2014 period: A geo-epidemiological study
SajjadRahimi Pordanjani,Amir Kavousi,Babak Mirbagheri,Abbas Shahsavani,Koorosh Etemad
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2021; 26(1): 18
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Primary tumor resection benefited the survival of patients with distant metastatic gastric cancer
Yan Gao,Yuxin Chu,Qinyong Hu,Qibin Song
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2021; 26(1): 24
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Association between diabetes and acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, non-Hopkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma
Ji Zhong Zhao,Yu Cheng Lu,Yan Min Wang,Bo Lian Xiao,Hong Yan Li,Shao Chin Lee,Li Juan Wang
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Molecular alterations that precede the establishment of the hallmarks of cancer: An approach on the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis
Brisa Rodope Alarcón-Sánchez, Julio Isael Pérez-Carreón, Saúl Villa-Treviño, Jaime Arellanes-Robledo
Biochemical Pharmacology. 2021; 194: 114818
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Disentangling the obesity paradox in upper gastrointestinal cancers: Weight loss matters more than body mass index
Shria Kumar,Nadim Mahmud,David S. Goldberg,Jashodeep Datta,David E. Kaplan
Cancer Epidemiology. 2021; 72: 101912
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 The biological and pharmacological connections between diabetes and various types of cancer
Xuechang Wang,Suming Ding
Pathology - Research and Practice. 2021; 227: 153641
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Translating the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) knowledge into real-world nutrition strategies
Heitor O. Santos, Nilson Penha-Silva
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Impact of poor glycemic control upon clinical outcomes after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer
Hakmin Lee,Seok-Soo Byun,Sang Eun Lee,Sung Kyu Hong
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors for Cancer and the Preventive Opportunities: Current Status, Future Perspectives, and Implications for India
Vinod K. Ramani,Ganesha D. V.,Radheshyam Naik
Asian Journal of Oncology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Metformin inhibits tumor growth and affects intestinal flora in diabetic tumor-bearing mice
Jie Kang, Chunqing Li, Xuehui Gao, Zhiqin Liu, Chuan Chen, Duqiang Luo
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2021; 912: 174605
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Metformin and Malignant Tumors: Not Over the Hill
Weiling Leng,Juan Jiang,Bing Chen,Qinan Wu
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. 2021; Volume 14: 3673
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Breast cancer in previously thyroidectomized patients: which thyroid disorders are a risk factor?
Giuseppa Graceffa,Gregorio Scerrino,Gabriella Militello,Iole Laise,Brenda Randisi,Giuseppina Melfa,Giuseppina Orlando,Sergio Mazzola,Calogero Cipolla,Gianfranco Cocorullo
Future Science OA. 2021; : FSO699
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Effect of Glucose Variability on Pancreatic Cancer Through Regulation of COL6A1
Qian Yu,Zhong Zhang,Haijun Zhang
Cancer Management and Research. 2021; Volume 13: 1291
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins in the heart in rats in experimental diabetes mellitus, growing Guerin’s carcinoma and under their combination
E.M. Frantsiyants, V.A. Bandovkina, I.V. Kaplieva, E.I. Surikova, N.D. Cheryarina, A.I. Shikhlyarova, I.V. Neskubina, Y.A. Pogorelova, L.K. Trepitaki, I.A. Goroshinskaya, I.M. Kotieva, M.I. Morozova
CARDIOMETRY. 2021; (18): 138
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Discovery and validation of PZP as a novel serum biomarker for screening lung adenocarcinoma in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
Jiayue Yang,Cheng Yang,Hong Shen,Wenjun Wu,Zhen Tian,Qinghua Xu,Cuiping Cao,Shugao Ye,Le Ban,Xin Tong,Jie Mei
Cancer Cell International. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 The prognostic outcome of ‘type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer’ association pivots on hypoxia-hyperglycemia axis
Ilhaam Ayaz Durrani,Attya Bhatti,Peter John
Cancer Cell International. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Antidiabetic drugs and the risk of cancer: beneficial, neutral, or detrimental?
Taoreed Adegoke Azeez,Sharif Adeniyi Folorunso,Chinedu Eguzozie,Adeleke Adedapo Adegboyega
Forum of Clinical Oncology. 2021; 12(1): 74
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Functionalized Selenium Nanoparticles Synergizes With Metformin to Treat Breast Cancer Cells Through Regulation of Selenoproteins
Yu Yang,Zehang Zhang,Qi Chen,Yuanyuan You,Xiaoling Li,Tianfeng Chen
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2021; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 High Glucose Enhances Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Jie Zhu,Wenjuan Yang,Xiangda Zhou,Dorina Zöphel,Leticia Soriano-Baguet,Denise Dolgener,Christopher Carlein,Chantal Hof,Renping Zhao,Shandong Ye,Eva C. Schwarz,Dirk Brenner,Leticia Prates Roma,Bin Qu
Frontiers in Immunology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker, PZP, for Detecting Colorectal Cancer in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Identified by Serum-Based Mass Spectrometry
Jiayue Yang, Weigang Fang, Wenjun Wu, Zhen Tian, Rong Gao, Lu Yu, Dayang Chen, Xiaohua Weng, Shengwei Zhu, Cheng Yang
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 2021; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Use of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) as a Model to Study Cardiovascular Disease: A Review
Diana J. Medina-Leyte,Mayra Domínguez-Pérez,Ingrid Mercado,María T. Villarreal-Molina,Leonor Jacobo-Albavera
Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(3): 938
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Rosemary Leaf Extract Inhibits Glycation, Breast Cancer Proliferation, and Diabetes Risks
Yixiao Shen,Jing Han,Xiaoyan Zheng,Binling Ai,Yang Yang,Dao Xiao,Lili Zheng,Zhanwu Sheng
Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(7): 2249
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Cancer Biology and Prevention in Diabetes
Swayam Prakash Srivastava,Julie E. Goodwin
Cells. 2020; 9(6): 1380
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Metformin and risk of cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Kui Zhang,Peng Bai,Hao Dai,Zhenhua Deng
Primary Care Diabetes. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Type 2 diabetes associated with abnormal p53 immunohistochemical patterns in colorectal cancer
Zeran Yang,Jie Ma,Guangwei Qi,Xin Zhang
Cancer Investigation. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Association of Genetic Polymorphisms in TNFRSF11 with the Progression of Genetic Susceptibility to Gastric Cancer
Yu Fan,Xuyu Gu,Huiwen Pan,Zhe Dai,Chen Zou,Zhenjun Gao,Heng Zhang
Journal of Oncology. 2020; 2020: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin vs monotherapy as added to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes
Yan Zhuang,Jin Song,Miaofa Ying,Mingxing Li
Medicine. 2020; 99(30): e21409
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Cell-free nucleic acid patterns in disease prediction and monitoring—hype or hope?
Adriana Torres Crigna,Marek Samec,Lenka Koklesova,Alena Liskova,Frank A. Giordano,Peter Kubatka,Olga Golubnitschaja
EPMA Journal. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 ///
ii ivanov
Medicine of Extreme Situations. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Role of heredity, endogenous and exogenous factors in gastric cancer
PV Ershov
Medicine of Extreme Situations. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Previous article  Next article
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1172    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 51    

Recommend this journal