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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84

Updates in diagnosis and management of Ebola hemorrhagic fever


1 Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Taibah College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
2 Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Molecular Virology Unit, Central Laboratories and Blood Bank, Directorate of Health, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Medicine, Uhud General Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Pediatrics, Sohag Teaching Hospital, Sohag, Egypt; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Maternity and Children Hospital, King Abdullah Medical City, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
6 Atlas Medical Center, Ministry of Health, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Salah Mohamed El Sayed
Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Taibah College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-1995.192500

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Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a lethal viral disease transmitted by contact with infected people and animals. Ebola infection represents a worldwide health threat causing enormous mortality rates and fatal epidemics. Major concern is pilgrimage seasons with possible transmission to Middle East populations. In this review, we aim to shed light on Ebola hemorrhagic fever as regard: virology, transmission, biology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, and complications to get the best results for prevention and management. We also aim to guide future research to new therapeutic perspectives to precise targets. Our methodology was to review the literature extensively to make an overall view of the biology of Ebola virus infection, its serious health effects and possible therapeutic benefits using currently available remedies and future perspectives. Key findings in Ebola patients are fever, hepatic impairment, hepatocellular necrosis, lymphopenia (for T-lymphocyte and natural killer cells) with lymphocyte apoptosis, hemorrhagic manifestations, and complications. Pathogenesis in Ebola infection includes oxidative stress, immune suppression of both cell-mediated and humoral immunities, hepatic and adrenal impairment and failure, hemorrhagic fever, activation of deleterious inflammatory pathways, for example, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and factor of apoptotic signal death receptor pathways causing lymphocyte depletion. Several inflammatory mediators and cytokines are involved in pathogenesis, for example, interleukin-2, 6, 8, and 10 and others. In conclusion, Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a serious fatal viral infection that can be prevented using strict health measures and can be treated to some extent using some currently available remedies. Newer treatment lines, for example, prophetic medicine remedies as nigella sativa may be promising.


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